A Cracked Foundation

Supporting Research Literature

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Communications (2006) Children, Adolescents, and Advertising. Pediatrics Vol 118 No 6, 2562-2569. This paper points out that exposure of children to TV advertising correlates with obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarette and alcohol use.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education (2001) Children, Adolescents, and Television. Pediatrics Vol 107(2), 423-426. This policy statement describes the negative effects of television viewing as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. This statement recommends no TV or videogames for toddlers under the age of 2, and a limit of 1-2 hours per day for children.

Autism Society America (2003) Facts and Statistics. Autism Spectrum Disorder. This article states that autism is the fastest growing developmental disability with 2003 prevalence of 0.7% with a 10-17% annual growth.

Ayres, A (1979) Sensory Integration and The Child. Western Psychological Services, California.

Barthell, K (2004) Evidence and Art: Merging Forces in Pediatric Therapy. Workshops and book available at www.labyrinthjourneys.com.

Becker-Weidman A (2001) Attachment Disorder Checklist. Mental Health Matters. Checklist designed to identify children with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

Burdette, H and Whitaker R (2005) A National Study of Neighborhood Safety, Outdoor Play, Television Viewing, and Obesity in Preschool Children. Pediatrics Vol 116, 657-662. This study reports that mother’s perceptions of safety was related to their children’s TV viewing time.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Mental Health in the United States: Prevalence of Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This reports a 7.8% ADHD prevalence in 2003 with 56.3% of this population on medication.

Christakis D and Zimmerman F (2007) Violent Television During Preschool Is Associated With Antisocial Behavioural During School Age. Pediatrics Vol 120, 993-999. This study concluded that violent television programming was associated with an increased risk for antisocial behaviour for boys, but not for girls.

Christakis D, Zimmerman F, DiGiuseppe and McCarty C (2004) Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children. Pediatrics Vol 113, 708-713. This study reports that for every one hour of television watched per day, there is a 10% increase in attention problems by the age of 7 years.

Cotman C, Berchtold N and Christie L (2007) Exercise Builds Brain Health: Key Roles of Growth Factor Cascades and Inflammation. Trends in Neuroscience Vol 30 No 9, 464-472. This research profiles how exercise improves cerebral vascular perfusion, increases the production of neurogenic growth factor, and decreases inflammation with subsequent increase in the number and length of survival of nerve cells in the hippocampal region, implicated in learning and memory. This article also shows the positive effects of exercise on reducing depression.

DeGangi, G (2000) Pediatric Disorders of Regulation in Affect and Behaviour. A Therapist’s Guide to Assessment and Treatment. Academic Press, New York.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd Edition (1987), 313.89 Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood. American Psychiatric Association.

Driver J and Frith C (2000) Shifting Baselines in Attention Research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 1, 147-148. This commentary profiles new studies indicating that the attention state of the observer affects processing of incoming stimuli, and that the sensory cortex can actually prepare and modulate incoming stimuli. This information substantiates the importance of educating children regarding how to attain body energy necessary to improve attention by using Zone’in Tools and Techniques.

Frick S and Hacker C (2001) Listening With the Whole Body. Vital Links Press, Wisconsin.

Hall L and Case-Smith J (2007) The Effect of Sound Based Intervention on Children With Sensory Processing Disorders and Visual-Motor Delays. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 209-215. Results of this study indicate that a therapeutic listening program and sensory diet significantly improved participants scores on the Sensory Profile, with parents reporting improvement in their children’s behaviours related to sensory processing. This information validated use of therapeutic sound in the Zone’in Program.

Hillman C, Erickson K and Kramer A (2008) Be Smart, Exercise Your Heart: Exercise Effects of Brain and Cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 9 58-65. This article profiles the following studies: achievement in standardized test of reading and math was positively correlated with physical fitness scores; social isolation reduced positive effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogensis; exercise training improved depression; cognitive, physical and social engagement decreased the risk of dementia.

Hofler D and Kooyman M (1996) Attachment Transition, Addiction and Therapeutic Bonding – An Integrative Approach. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 13 No 6, 511-519. This article profiles the concept that addiction is a maladaptive attachment transition and results from a fear of intimacy, and states the clinical implication of using therapeutic bonding as a treatment intervention.

Grossberg S (2005) Linking Attention to Learning, Expectation, Competition, and Consciousness. Neurobiology of Attention (Eds. Itti, Rees and Tsotsos). Elsevier Academic Press Chapter 107, 652-662. Grossberg discusses his Adaptive Resonance Theory which predicts that “All conscious states are resonant states”, and that there is a resonance between top-down attention modulation and bottom-up stimuli, and that this resonance leads to a synchronization which facilitates learning as “cells that fire together wire together”.

Hancox R, Milne B and Poulton R (2005) Association of Television During Childhood With Poor Educational Achievement. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine Vol 159 No 7, 614-618. This study concluded that television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 26 years of age.

Healy J (1999) Endangered Minds: Why Children Don’t Think and What We Can Do About It. Simon and Schuster Publishing Company.

Healy J (1998) Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children’s Minds – For Better or For Worse. Simon and Schuster Publishing Company.

Horvath C (2004) Measuring Television Addiction. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Vol 48(3), 378-398. Information from this paper was used in the design of the Zone’in “TVVG Help Module for Parents and Teachers”.

Insel T and Young L (2001) The Neurobiology of Attachment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 2 129-137. This article profiles the importance of attachment and quotes Baruch Spinoza who states “Humans are primarily a social animal, and it’s our social attachments we live for”. Insel and Young define a mother’s attachment to her infant as a process of “approach, identify and select/reject”, which are mediated by the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin, found in the dopamine rich areas of the brain, the substantia nigra and preoptic areas. This study points out the similarity between social attachment and psychostimulant addiction, as they apparently use the same neurological pathways, resulting in social recognition, reward and euphoria.

Jordan A, Hersey J, McDivitt J and Heitzler C (2006) Reducing Children’s Television-Viewing Time: A Qualitative Study of Parents and Their Children. Pediatrics Vol 118, 1303-1310. This study profiles barriers to reducing TV viewing time such as parents using TV as a safe and affordable distraction, parent’s own heavy TV viewing patterns, the prominent role TV plays in the family’s day to day routine, and a belief that children should spend their leisure time as they wish.

Landhuis C, Poulton R, Welch D and Hancox R (2007) Does Childhood Television Viewing Lead to Attention Problems in Adolescence? Pediatrics Vol 120, 532-537. This study found that not only does childhood television viewing contribute to attention problems in adolescence, but that these effects may be long lasting.

Learning Disabilities Association of British Columbia – Fact Sheet Statistics (2007) Learning Disabilities Fact Sheet. This document states that 15% of the elementary population has learning disabilities, with reading deficits the most prevalent condition. 35% of the learning disabled population will drop out of school, 60% will receive treatment for substance abuse, and they will have twice the unemployment rate of the non-disabled population.

Mate, G (1999) Scattered Minds. A New Look at the Origins and Healing of Attention Deficit Disorder. Alfred A. Knopf Publishers, Toronto, Canada.

May-Benson M, Koomar J (2007) Identifying Gravitational Insecurity in Children: A Pilot Study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 142-147. This study reports that the GI Assessment is a promising clinical tool for objectively identifying children with gravitational insecurity, and was referenced in the Zone’in Workshop when reporting movement related sensory processing disorders.

Miller L, Coll J and Schoen S (2007) A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy for Children with Sensory Modulation Disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 228-238. Children diagnosed with Sensory Processing Disorder made significant gains following a sensory integration approach on goal attainment scaling and on the Attention subtest and the Cognitive/Social composite of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. This study validates use of sensory integrative approach in design of the Zone’in Program.

Mistry K, Minkovitz, Strobino D and Borzekowski D (2007) Children’s Television Exposure and Behavioural and Social Outcomes at 5.5 Years: Does Timing of Exposure Matter? Pediatrics Vol 120, 762-769. This study reports that by the age of 5.5 years 41% of children had televisions in their bedrooms, and that television exposure was associated with fewer social skills, and poor sleep.

Montagu, A (1978) Touching, The Human Significance of the Skin 2nd Edition. Harper and Row Publishers Inc. New York.

Mukaddes N, Bilge S, Alyanak B, Kora M (2000) Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Responses in Cases Diagnosed as Reactive Attachment Disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development Vol 30(4), 273-287. This study was conducted on 15 children with RAD who were misdiagnosed with PDD, and found that 66.6% of RAD children were exposed to 7.26 hours of TV use per day with age of onset at 7.16 months, and conclude that “excessive TV exposure might be a form of neglect that is specific for RAD patients”.

Murray J, Liotti M, Ingmundson P, Mayberg H, Pu Y, Zamarripa f, Liu Y, Woldorff M. Gao J, and Fox P (2006) Children’s Brain Activations While Viewing Televised Violence Revealed by fMRI. Media Psychology Vol 8 No 1, 25-37. fMRI’s of eight children showed that TV violence viewing recruits a network of brain regions involved in the regulation of emotion, arousal and attention, episodic memory encoding and retrieval, and reports that extensive TV violence viewing may result in a large number of aggressive scripts stored in long-term memory in the posterior cingulated, which facilitates rapid recall of aggressive scenes that serve as a guide for overt social behavior.

National Resource Center on ADHD – Statistical Prevalence (2007) About ADHD. This report states that 7% of elementary children have a diagnosis of ADHD, with 61% of these children also having learning disabilities.

Nelson M, Neumark-Stzainer D, Hannan P, Sirard J and Story M (2006) Longitudinal and Secular Trends in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior During Adolescence. Pediatrics Vol 118 No 6 1627-1634. This study documents increased computer use correlates with decreased physical activity.

Paavonen E, Pennonen M and Roine M (2006) Passive Exposure to TV Linked to Sleep Problems in Children. Journal of Sleep Research Vol 15, 154-161. This study documents that active TV viewing was correlated with sleep-wake transition disorders.

Parham L, Cohn E, Spitzer S, Koomar J, Miller L, Burke J, Brett-Green B, Mailloux Z, May-Benson T, Smith Roley S, Schaaf R, Schoen S, Summers C (2007) Fidelity in Sensory Integration Intervention Research. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 216-227. This article describes identification of 10 core sensory integration intervention elements, with subsequent review of 34 sensory integration studies showing only one core element was addressed in all studies. These results show that validity of sensory integration outcomes studies is threatened by weak fidelity in regard to therapeutic process, as described in the Zone’in Workshop.

Paris B and Murray-Slutsky C (2005) Is it Sensory or is it Behavior? Behavior Problem Identification, Assessment and Intervention. Harcourt Publishing, San Antonio Texas. This book clearly outlines behavior as a coping strategy, and discusses that as this coping strategy is repeated, the behavior becomes firmly established appearing “willful”.

Pelligrini A. and Bohn C. (2005) The Role of Recess in Children’s Cognitive Performance and School Adjustment. Educational Researcher Vol 34 No 1, 13-19. This study reports that providing breaks over the course of a child’s school day enhances their ability to attend and learn. This study also reports that kindergarteners’ playground social behaviour was a significant factor in first grade achievement, and discussed that the playground may be the only area where “latch-key” kids get to socialize with their peers. This study support Zone’in premise that children learn first with their bodies, then their brain, and supports Zone’in recommendations that children should employ a variety of movement techniques to optimize learning.

Porges, S (2005) The Vagus. The Neurobiology of Autism, Eds Bauman & Kemper, John Hopkins University Press, 65-77.

Rideout V, Vandewater E and Wartella E (2003) Zero To Six: Electronic Media In The Lives of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers. The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation Report, California. This report documents the recent explosion of electronic media targeted at the very youngest of children 0-6 years of age, and states that 99% of homes have a TV, 36% have a TV in their bedrooms, 50% have a videogame player, and 73% have a computer. Despite the fact that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends toddlers under the age of 2 years should not use ANY electronic media, 68% use electronic media daily, 25% have TV’s in their bedrooms and average use is 2 hours 5 minutes per day. Regarding extent of TV usage, children are less likely to read in high use homes, TV use is not income dependent, but that there is less usage in homes where one parent holds a college degree.

Roberts D, Foehr U, Rideout V, Brodie M (1999) Kids and Media at the New Millennium: A Comprehensive National Analysis of Children’s Media Use. The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation Report, California. This report documents that children spend on average 6.5 hours per day of combined media use (TV, videogames, computers), and 32% of 2-7 year olds and 65% of 8-18 year olds have TV’s in their bedrooms.

Schaaf R and McKeon Nightlinger, K (2007) Occupational Therapy Using a Sensory Integrative Approach: A Case Study of Effectiveness. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 239-246. This single subject design of a child with poor sensory processing indicates improvement in goal attainment and behaviour with occupational therapy using a sensory integrative approach. This study validates use of sensory integrative approach in design of the Zone’in Program.

Schilling D, Washington K, Billingsley F and Deitz J (2003) Classroom Seating for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 57 No 5, 534-541. This research found that use of therapy balls for students with ADHD facilitates in-seat behavior and legible word productivity.

Schmidt R and Lee T (2005) Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis. Human Kinetics Publishing, Illinois. This book reports the immense role that vision has in determining behavior, and states that 87.7% of behavior is driven by vision.

Thakkar R, Garrison M and Christakis D (2006) A Systematic Review for the Effects of Television Viewing by Infants and Preschoolers. Pediatrics Vol 118, 2025-2031. This study points out that although viewing educational programs broadens young children’s knowledge, viewing of cartoon content has a negative effect on children’s attentional abilities.

Thompson, D and Christakis D (2005) The Association Between Television Viewing and Irregular Sleep Schedules Among Children Less Than 3 Years of Age. Pediatrics Vol 116, 851-856. This study reports that the total number of hours of TV watched per day was associated with irregular nap and bedtime schedules.

Tomchek S and Dunn W (2007) Sensory Processing in Children With and Without Autism: A Comparative Study Using the Short Sensory Profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 190-200. This study reports that 95% of sample of 281 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder demonstrated some degree of sensory processing dysfunction on the Short Sensory Profile, with greatest differences reported on the Underresponsive/Seeks Sensation, Auditory Filtering and Tactile Sensitivity sections.

Vandewater E, Lee J and Shim M (2005) Family Conflict and Violent Electronic Media Use in School-Aged Children. Media Psychology Vol 7 No 1, 73-86. This research showed that family conflict is positively related to violent electronic media use, and that family tensions will be reflected in children’s interest in media with violent content.

Waldman M, Nicholson S and Adilov N (2006) Does Television Cause Autism? Cornell University, New York. This study showed that heavy TV use prior to age 3 years positively correlates to increase in prevalence of Autism.

Williams M and Shellenberger S (1995) How Does Your Engine Run? Therapy Works Inc, New Mexico.

Zimmerman F, Christakis D and Meltzoff A (2007) Television and DVD/Video Viewing in Children Younger Than 2 Years. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine Vol 161 No 5, 473-479. This study showed that by 3 months of age, 40% of children regularly watched television, DVD’s or videos, and by 24 months 90%. Average duration rose form 1 hour per day for children less than one year old to 1.5 hours by 24 months.

Zimmerman F and Christakis D (2007) Associations Between Content Types of Early Media Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems. Pediatrics Vol 120, 986-992. This study showed that viewing of television prior to age 3 was significantly associated with attention problems.