Diminishing Returns

Supporting Research Literature

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Communications (2006) Children, Adolescents, and Advertising. Pediatrics Vol 118 No 6, 2562-2569. This paper points out that exposure of children to TV advertising correlates with obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarette and alcohol use.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education (2001) Children, Adolescents, and Television. Pediatrics Vol 107(2), 423-426. This policy statement describes the negative effects of television viewing as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. This statement recommends no TV or videogames for toddlers under the age of 2, and a limit of 1-2 hours per day for children.

Autism Society America (2003) Facts and Statistics. Autism Spectrum Disorder. This article states that autism is the fastest growing developmental disability with 2003 prevalence of 0.7% with a 10-17% annual growth.

Baines L, Baines C, Stanley G and Kunkel A (1999) Losing the Product in the Process. English Journal Vol 88(5) 67-72. These authors state the process of writing has become so ubiquitous as to mean anything, or perhaps more precisely, it has come to mean almost nothing. Tragically the art and soul of writing has been lost in the process.

Braswell J and Rine R (2006) Evidence that Vestibular Hypofunction Affects Reading Acuity in Children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Vol 70 Issue 11, 1957-1965. Study results found that reading acuity scores were significantly worse in children with vestibular hypofunction, and that reading acuity scores correlated with dynamic not static visual acuity scores. This reports high lights that gaze instability due to vestibular hypofunction affects reading ability in young children.

Braswell J and Rine R (2006) Preliminary Evidence of Improved Gaze Stability Following Exercise in Two Children with Vestibular Hypofunction. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Vol 70 Issue 11, 1967-1973. This study found that visual-vestibular exercises improved critical print size and reading acuity.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Mental Health in the United States: Prevalence of Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This reports a 7.8% ADHD prevalence in 2003 with 56.3% of this population on medication.

Christakis D and Zimmerman F (2007) Violent Television During Preschool Is Associated With Antisocial Behavioural During School Age. Pediatrics Vol 120, 993-999. This study concluded that violent television programming was associated with an increased risk for antisocial behaviour for boys, but not for girls.

Christakis D, Zimmerman F, DiGiuseppe and McCarty C (2004) Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children. Pediatrics Vol 113, 708-713. This study reports that for every one hour of television watched per day, there is a 10% increase in attention problems by the age of 7 years.

deSilva S. (2006) Director General Centre for Education Statistics reports results from Program for International Student Assessment (2006), a comprehensive survey of 15 year olds indicates that reading performance has declined to placing 4th in international standing, compared to placing 3rd in 2003.

Driver J and Frith C (2000) Shifting Baselines in Attention Research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 1, 147-148. This commentary profiles new studies indicating that the attention state of the observer affects processing of incoming stimuli, and that the sensory cortex can actually prepare and modulate incoming stimuli. This information substantiates the importance of educating children regarding how to attain body energy necessary to improve attention by using Zone’in Tools and Techniques.

Ehri L, Nunes S, Willows D, Schuster B, Zadeh Z, Shanahan T. (2001) Phonemic Awareness Instruction Helps Children Learn to Read: Evidence form the National Reading Panel’s Meta-Analysis. Reading Research Quarterly Vol. 36 No. 3 250-287. This article high lights that while phonemic awareness instruction improved reading, it did not improve spelling in disabled readers, and stated that PA was more effective when taught with, as opposed to without letters. This article supports the role of the visual in addition to the auditory component when teaching reading.

Gee M. (1989) Start the “Write” Way. Reading, 23(3), 150-159. This research showed that teaching letters in stroke-related families, using letter templates, and using visual and motor cues resulted in reduced errors in output. Results were used in design of the motor planning interventions in the Play’in the Lines Computer Program.

Goldberg E, Simner M. (1999) A Comparison of Children’s Handwriting Under Traditional vs. Whole Language Instruction. Results indicate that students who were taught using traditional instruction style demonstrated more legible handwriting, and were able to produce significantly more words, than students taught using whole language instruction style. Traditional instruction is defined as “copying, tracing, whole-arm movements, kinesthetic feedback, and writing on various materials (lined paper, blackboard, copybooks). Results were used in design of the motor planning interventions in the Play’in the Lines Computer Program.

Goldstand S, Koslowe K., and Parush S. (2007) Vision, Visual-Information Processing, and Academic Performance Among Seventh-Grade Schoolchildren: A More Significant Relationship Than We Thought? This article shows that visual ability correlates with academic performance, and report that visual deficits were found in 68% of study participants. Results of this study were used to substantiate the visual assessment components of the Move’in Program.

Graham S, Harris K, Mason L, Fink-Chorzempa B, Moran S, Saddler B (2008) How Do Primary Grade Teachers Teach Handwriting? A National Survey. To be published in Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. This US study reports that 90% of US primary school teachers college education did not adequately prepare them to provide lessons in penmanship, and therefore do not devote much time to teaching printing. Teachers spend an average 14 minutes per day teaching handwriting, far less than the 45 minutes per day spent in the 60′s and 70′s, and slightly less than the 15 minutes per day mandated in the 80′s. Textbooks offer less information on teaching printing, and universities have less instruction. Handwriting teaching methods and methods for student evaluation are inconsistent and non-standardized. 100% of the 169 primary teachers who participated in this study reported they thought printing should be taught as a separate subject.

Graham S, and Weintraub N. (1996) A Review of Handwriting Research: Progress and Prospects from 1980 to 1994. Educational Psychology Review, 8, 7-87. This study documents that in 1993 70% of teachers indicated that handwriting was “not as good as it should be”, and expressed concern regarding the “downward plunge in the standards of handwriting legibility required of elementary school children”. Authors also state that students who have difficulty with automaticity of writing, thus achieving poor quality and quantity of written output, results in avoidance and minimization of the writing process. Authors state that for beginning writers, both visual and verbal modeling appears to be the most effective means of introducing a letter prior to practice (i.e. the teacher demonstrates how a letter is made while describing how it is formed).

Graham S, MacArthur C and Fitzgerald J (2007) Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Eds. MacArthur C, Graham S and Fitzgerald G. Guilford Press, New York. This book was instrumental in design of the Move’in Program and Workshop and draws the correlation between poor printing and subsequent difficulty with spelling, sentence composition, math, science and any subject requiring printing skill. Graham states “Failure to develop legible and automatic letter and word formation interferes with content in writing.” and “Because of the excessive labor and unattractive results involved in such writing, students are more likely to avoid or minimize the process when possible”. Graham instructs that for beginners, both visual and verbal modeling is the most effective means of introducing a letter prior to practice.

Graham S, Harris K and Fink B (2000) Is Handwriting Causally Related to Learning to Write? Treatment of Handwriting Problems in Beginning Writers. Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 92, 620-633. This article profiles how poor handwriting can result in a disability in written expression.

Graham S (2006) Handbook of Writing Research, Ch 13 – Strategy Instruction and the Teaching of Writing. Eds. MacArthur C, Graham S and Fitzgerald G. Guilford Press, New York. This meta-analysis concludes that printing strategy instruction is effective in improving student’s writing performance in the areas of quality, elements, length, and revisions, with results maintained over time and generalized to new tasks and situations.

Hall L and Case-Smith J (2007) The Effect of Sound Based Intervention on Children With Sensory Processing Disorders and Visual-Motor Delays. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 209-215. Results of this study indicate that a therapeutic listening program and sensory diet significantly improved participants scores on the Sensory Profile, with parents reporting improvement in their children’s behaviours related to sensory processing. This information validated use of therapeutic sound in the Zone’in Program.

Hannaford, Carla (2005) Smart Moves: Why Learning Is Not All In Your Head 2nd Edition. Great River Book Publishers, Utah. This book reports the importance of determining developmental level of a child prior to introducing printing, and advocates introducing cursive prior to printing as requires less skill to achieve results. Hannaford reports that when faced with difficult tasks (printing too early) acquire a “learned helplessness” and low motivation for task completion.

Hillman C, Erickson K and Kramer A (2008) Be Smart, Exercise Your Heart: Exercise Effects of Brain and Cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 9 58-65. This article profiles the following studies: achievement in standardized test of reading and math was positively correlated with physical fitness scores; social isolation reduced positive effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogensis; exercise training improved depression; cognitive, physical and social engagement decreased the risk of dementia.

Grossberg S (2005) Linking Attention to Learning, Expectation, Competition, and Consciousness. Neurobiology of Attention (Eds. Itti, Rees and Tsotsos). Elsevier Academic Press Chapter 107, 652-662. Grossberg discusses his Adaptive Resonance Theory which predicts that “All conscious states are resonant states”, and that there is a resonance between top-down attention modulation and bottom-up stimuli, and that this resonance leads to a synchronization which facilitates learning as “cells that fire together wire together”.

Hancox R, Milne B and Poulton R (2005) Association of Television During Childhood With Poor Educational Achievement. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine Vol 159 No 7, 614-618. This study concluded that television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 26 years of age.

Hasbrouck J. (1994) Objective Procedures for Scoring Student’s Writing. Teaching Exceptional Children, Winter, 18-25. This article was referenced when planning procedures for collecting writing samples for the printing speed component of the Move’in Program.

Healy J (1999) Endangered Minds: Why Children Don’t Think and What We Can Do About It. Simon and Schuster Publishing Company.

Healy J (1998) Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children’s Minds – For Better or For Worse. Simon and Schuster Publishing Company.

Horvath C (2004) Measuring Television Addiction. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Vol 48(3), 378-398. Information from this paper was used in the design of the Zone’in “TVVG Help Module for Parents and Teachers”.

Hulit L and Howard M (2005) Born to Talk, An Introduction to Speech and Language Development, 4th Edition. Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights Press. This book defines components of attention as orientation, motivation, arousal and memory, and types of attention as focused, sustained, selective, divided and alternating.

Jones D and Christensen C (1999) Relationship Between Automaticity in Handwriting and Student’s Ability to Generate Written Text. Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 91, 44-49. This article delineates how failure to develop legible and automatic letter and word formation may interfere with content in writing. Authors go on to states that students who struggle to retrieve letters from memory, to reproduce then on the page, and to scale them to other letters have less attention available to spend on spelling, planning and effectively expressing intended meanings.

Klenberg L, Korkman M, Lahti-Nuuttila P (2001) Differential Development of Attention and Executive Functions in 3 to 12 Year Old Finnish Children. Developmental Neuropsychology Vol 20(1) 407-428. This study profiles confusion in the literature regarding the terms attention, executive function and memory. Authors described attention as having 4 subfunctions of arousal, focus, sustain and shift, and describe 3 developmental sequences of attention as impulse control, sustained attention and executive function. 10 subtests used in this study on 400 normal 3-12 year olds measured impulse control, auditory and visual attention, visual search, planning and verbal and visual fluency. Girls out-performed boys on all subtests, and children of parents with higher education levels out performed children of parents with lower education only on the subtests of execute functioning (not on inhibition or visual/auditory attention subtests). Results suggest a staging of development that begins at age 6 years with maturing of inhibitory functions, followed by a relative maturation of auditory and visual attention at age 10 years.

Korkman, M (2001) Introduction to the Special Issue on Normal Neuropsychological Development in the School-Aged Years. Developmental Neuropsychology Vol. 20(1) 325-330. This article points out that lack of neuropsychological research on age-related changes in school-aged children, and recommends utilization of existing databases for study on normal development.

Landhuis C, Poulton R, Welch D and Hancox R (2007) Does Childhood Television Viewing Lead to Attention Problems in Adolescence? Pediatrics Vol 120, 532-537. This study found that not only does childhood television viewing contribute to attention problems in adolescence, but that these effects may be long lasting.

Learning Disabilities Association of British Columbia – Fact Sheet Statistics (2007) Learning Disabilities Fact Sheet. This document states that 15% of the elementary population has learning disabilities, with reading deficits the most prevalent condition. 35% of the learning disabled population will drop out of school, 60% will receive treatment for substance abuse, and they will have twice the unemployment rate of the non-disabled population.

Mate, G (1999) Scattered Minds. A New Look at the Origins and Healing of Attention Deficit Disorder. Alfred A. Knopf Publishers, Toronto, Canada.

Mirsky A, Anthony B, Duncan C, Ahern M, Kellam S (1991) Analysis of the Elements of Attention: A Neuropsychological Approach. Neuropsychology Review Vol 2 No. 2, 109-145. This study reports three elements of attention and their respective anatomical origins: focus/execution – temporal and parietal lobes, sustain/encode – hippocampus and amydgala, and shift – prefrontal cortex.

Mukaddes N, Bilge S, Alyanak B, Kora M (2000) Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Responses in Cases Diagnosed as Reactive Attachment Disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development Vol 30(4), 273-287. This study was conducted on 15 children with RAD who were misdiagnosed with PDD, and found that 66.6% of RAD children were exposed to 7.26 hours of TV use per day with age of onset at 7.16 months, and conclude that “excessive TV exposure might be a form of neglect that is specific for RAD patients”.

Murray J, Liotti M, Ingmundson P, Mayberg H, Pu Y, Zamarripa f, Liu Y, Woldorff M. Gao J, and Fox P (2006) Children’s Brain Activations While Viewing Televised Violence Revealed by fMRI. Media Psychology Vol 8 No 1, 25-37. fMRI’s of eight children showed that TV violence viewing recruits a network of brain regions involved in the regulation of emotion, arousal and attention, episodic memory encoding and retrieval, and reports that extensive TV violence viewing may result in a large number of aggressive scripts stored in long-term memory in the posterior cingulated, which facilitates rapid recall of aggressive scenes that serve as a guide for overt social behavior.

National Dissemination Centre for Children With Disabilities – Fact Sheet 7 (2004) Learning Disabilities. This document reports that one in five children have a learning disability requiring the services of a school-based special education team, and prevalence of LD children have increased 22% over the past 25 years.

National Resource Center on ADHD – Statistical Prevalence (2007) About ADHD. This report states that 7% of elementary children have a diagnosis of ADHD, with 61% of these children also having learning disabilities.

Nelson M, Neumark-Stzainer D, Hannan P, Sirard J and Story M (2006) Longitudinal and Secular Trends in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior During Adolescence. Pediatrics Vol 118 No 6 1627-1634. This study documents increased computer use correlates with decreased physical activity.

Paris B and Murray-Slutsky C (2005) Is it Sensory or is it Behavior? Behavior Problem Identification, Assessment and Intervention. Harcourt Publishing, San Antonio Texas. This book clearly outlines behavior as a coping strategy, and discusses that as this coping strategy is repeated, the behavior becomes firmly established appearing “willful”.

Pelligrini A. and Bohn C. (2005) The Role of Recess in Children’s Cognitive Performance and School Adjustment. Educational Researcher Vol 34 No 1, 13-19. This study reports that providing breaks over the course of a child’s school day enhances their ability to attend and learn. This study also reports that kindergarteners’ playground social behaviour was a significant factor in first grade achievement, and discussed that the playground may be the only area where “latch-key” kids get to socialize with their peers. This study support Zone’in premise that children learn first with their bodies, then their brain, and supports Zone’in recommendations that children should employ a variety of movement techniques to optimize learning.

Porges, S (2005) The Vagus. The Neurobiology of Autism, Eds Bauman & Kemper, John Hopkins University Press, 65-77.

Pritchard R and Honeycutt R (2006) Handbook of Writing Research, Ch 19 – The Process Approach to Writing Instruction. Eds. MacArthur C, Graham S and Fitzgerald G. Guilford Press, New York. This chapter reports that due to poorly defined parameters regarding the process approach, evidence based research regarding efficacy is lacking. Authors go on to state that since the process approach provided an instructional alternative at a time when traditional methods grounded in rhetorical theory were being challenged, the process model evolved in practice more quickly than did supporting research and theories.

Rideout V, Vandewater E and Wartella E (2003) Zero To Six: Electronic Media In The Lives of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers. The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation Report, California. This report documents the recent explosion of electronic media targeted at the very youngest of children 0-6 years of age, and states that 99% of homes have a TV, 36% have a TV in their bedrooms, 50% have a videogame player, and 73% have a computer. Despite the fact that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends toddlers under the age of 2 years should not use ANY electronic media, 68% use electronic media daily, 25% have TV’s in their bedrooms and average use is 2 hours 5 minutes per day. Regarding extent of TV usage, children are less likely to read in high use homes, TV use is not income dependent, but that there is less usage in homes where one parent holds a college degree.

Rine R, Braswell J, Fisher D, Joyce K, Kalar K, and Shaffer M. (2004) Improvement of Motor Development and Postural Control Following Intervention in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Vestibular Impairment. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Vol 68 Issue 9, 1141-1148. This study showed that motor development scores increased significantly in children with sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular impairment following balance, visual and somatosensory training. This study substantiates that impaired vestibular development affects postural and motor ability.

Roberts D, Foehr U, Rideout V, Brodie M (1999) Kids and Media at the New Millennium: A Comprehensive National Analysis of Children’s Media Use. The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation Report, California. This report documents that children spend on average 6.5 hours per day of combined media use (TV, videogames, computers), and 32% of 2-7 year olds and 65% of 8-18 year olds have TV’s in their bedrooms.

Schilling D, Washington K, Billingsley F, Deitz J (2003). Classroom seating for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 57 534-541. This study reports that children with ADHD who were seated on therapy balls had increased in-seat behaviour and legible word productivity. This study supports the Move’in Programs use of therapy balls to set postural tone and improve distal motor performance effecting word legibility.

Schilling D, Washington K, Billingsley F and Deitz J (2003) Classroom Seating for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 57 No 5, 534-541. This research found that use of therapy balls for students with ADHD facilitates in-seat behavior and legible word productivity.

Schlagal B (2007) Best Practices in Writing Instruction – Ch 9 Best Practices in Spelling and Handwriting. Eds. Graham S, MacArthur C and Fitzgerald J, Guilford Press, New York. This chapter highlights how handwriting instruction for teachers has reduced by pointing out that The Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language (Flood, Lapp, Squire, and Jensen, 2003) has only devoted one page out of 1000 to handwriting instruction. Author goes on to state that poorly developed spelling and handwriting can affect the higher level literacy processes in which they are embedded, and should be given a more important role in school curriculum.

Schmidt R and Lee T (2005) Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis. Human Kinetics Publishing, Illinois. This book reports the immense role that vision has in determining behavior, and states that 87.7% of behavior is driven by vision.

Shanahan T (2007) Early Literacy Development: Sequence of Acquisition. Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development 1-6. London, ON: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. This document clearly outlines the sequence of acquisition of precursor skills for eventual reading ability, and high lights letter recognition and print concepts such as directionality and laterality.

Sheridan S (2001) The Scribble Hypothesis: A Plea for Brain-Compatible Teaching and Learning. Poster Presentation “Toward A Science of Consciousness ” Conference, Sweden. .

Simner M. (2003) Promoting Skilled Handwriting – The Kindergarten Path to Meaningful Written Communication. Canadian Psychological Association. This manual and Dr. Simner’s recommendations regarding printing instruction were instrumental in the planning of many components of the Move’in Program. Dr. Simner reports that documented cases in Toronto kindergarten classes spend just 2 minutes per day on letter formation instruction, and states that “It is my understanding that formal handwriting instruction, for the most part, has disappeared”.

Stage S, Sheppard J, Davidson M. and Browning M. (2001) Prediction of First-Graders’ Growth in Oral Reading Fluency Using Kindergarten Letter Fluency. Journal of School Psychology Vol 39, issue 3, 225-237. This study report that first graders’ growth in oral reading fluency was predicted by their kindergarten letter-naming and letter sound fluency. This study supports the Move’in Program’s premise that letter recognition is crucial for eventual reading fluency.

Thakkar R, Garrison M and Christakis D (2006) A Systematic Review for the Effects of Television Viewing by Infants and Preschoolers. Pediatrics Vol 118, 2025-2031. This study points out that although viewing educational programs broadens young children’s knowledge, viewing of cartoon content has a negative effect on children’s attentional abilities.

Tomchek S and Dunn W (2007) Sensory Processing in Children With and Without Autism: A Comparative Study Using the Short Sensory Profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 61 No 2, 190-200. This study reports that 95% of sample of 281 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder demonstrated some degree of sensory processing dysfunction on the Short Sensory Profile, with greatest differences reported on the Underresponsive/Seeks Sensation, Auditory Filtering and Tactile Sensitivity sections.

Tsuzuku T. and Kaga K. (1992) Delayed Motor Function and Results of Vestibular Function Tests in Children with Inner Ear Anomalies. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Vol 23 Issue 3, 261-268. This study reports that children with vestibular impairment demonstrated delayed motor function, supporting Dr. Jean Ayers findings that the vestibular system is the foundation for bilateral and ocular coordination and development of postural tone.

Waldman M, Nicholson S and Adilov N (2006) Does Television Cause Autism? Cornell University, New York. This study showed that heavy TV use prior to age 3 years positively correlates to increase in prevalence of Autism.

Zimmerman F, Christakis D and Meltzoff A (2007) Television and DVD/Video Viewing in Children Younger Than 2 Years. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine Vol 161 No 5, 473-479. This study showed that by 3 months of age, 40% of children regularly watched television, DVD’s or videos, and by 24 months 90%. Average duration rose form 1 hour per day for children less than one year old to 1.5 hours by 24 months.

Zimmerman F and Christakis D (2007) Associations Between Content Types of Early Media Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems. Pediatrics Vol 120, 986-992. This study showed that viewing of television prior to age 3 was significantly associated with attention problems.